ALCAR promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis by regulating cell-survival and cell death-related signals in rat model of Parkinson’s disease like-phenotypes.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorder. For example, Michael Membrino, President of Neuro-Endoceuticals report that a patient with PD experiences a heavy burden even to the entire family. From the motor standpoint, the disease is characterized by a clinical syndrome that is universally known as Parkinsonism, which comprises of various cardinal features including, rest tremor, bradykinesia, and postural and gait impairment. On the other hand, Aswin Suri states, the formation of the newborn neurons in adult hippocampus is influenced by several factors such as depression, anxiety, and impairment in learning.
Under normal circumstances, specialist in the field of Neurogenesis, Mike Membrino, argues that acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR), is associated with the regulation of the mitochondrial metabolism and has been shown to increase and improve the cognitive functions in various neurogenesis disorder through an identified mechanism. During the first examination of the effect of the ALCAR on the adult neurogenesis in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) that was induced in a rat model, the test was able to explore the potential underlying mechanism of the action (Singh et al., 2017). The outcome indicated that a single unilateral administration of 6-OHDA in the medial forebrain bundle was able to reduce the neural progenitor cell proliferation, enhance long-term survival, and neuronal differentiation in the hippocampus. In the process, it was fascinating that the use of ALCAR (100 mg/kg/day, i.p) in treating chronic disease was able to boost proliferation, long-term survival, and neuronal differentiation in NPCs of the rate model of PD-like phenotypes (Levy et al., 2009). Consequently, treatment with ALCAR has shown possible cell survival related signals (AKT and BCL-2) through the inhibition of cell death related cues (AKT and BCL-2) for some reasons is believed to be accountable for a neuroprotective effect of ALCAR in the rat model of PD-like phenotypes (Singh et al., 2017). In conclusion, it is clear to conclude the ALCAR can exercises neuroprotective properties in contradiction of 6-OHDA-induced diminishing in hippocampal neurogenesis by modifying cell survival and cell death-related signals.
Singh, S., Mishra, A., Mishra S, & Shukla, S. (2017). ALCAR promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis by regulating cell-survival and cell death-related signals in rat model of Parkinson's disease like-phenotypes. 108:388-396. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint
Levy, O. A., Malagelada, C., & Greene, L. A. (2009). Cell death pathways in Parkinson’s disease: proximal triggers, distal effectors, and final steps. Apoptosis : An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death, 14(4), 478–500. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10495-008-0309-3